## Dipl.-Ing. Kilian Nötzold

### Kontakt:

Rainer-Gruenter-Str. 21

42119 Wuppertal

Raum: FH.01.05

+49 202 439 1997

## Veröffentlichungen

- 15.K. Nötzold, N. Brissing, A. Uphues and S. Soter, "Generalized Integrator Based Active Damping" in
*2022 IEEE 7th Southern Power Electronics Conference (SPEC)*, 2022, pp. 1--6.ISBN: 2832-2983

Abstract:

To actively damp the inherent resonance of a LCL-topology applied as an output filter for a grid-connected inverter without capacitor current measuring capability, the derivative of the capacitor voltage can be utilized and fed back instead. However, digital implementation of this derivative is generally challenging due to noise-sensitivity or an introduced phase lag. In literature a second-order nonideal generalized integrator is proposed to indirectly differentiate the capacitor voltage and successfully tested in combination with a control loop based on grid current feedback. Here, this damping approach is adapted to a control loop based on converter current feedback. Simultaneously, and in contrast to more complex damping functions suggested in literature, the phase lag caused by computational delay is particularly compensated by simple proportional capacitor voltage's derivative feedback. To determine the required feedback constant, the feedback path is transformed into an equivalent impedance, connected in parallel to the filter capacitor. Consequently, the generalized integrator as well as the proportional feedback constant is simply parameterizable regarding the desired overall damping constant. Finally, experimental results with a 625 kW inverter demonstrate the active damping capability across a large frequency range. - 14.A. Uphues, K. Nötzold, R. Wegener and S. Soter, "Crowbar-less ride through of asymmetrical gric faults with DFIG based WECS" in
*2017 IEEE AFRICON*, 2017, pp. 1026--1031.

Abstract:

Due to the increased renewable power penetration level renewable power plants have to provide low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability with simultaneous dynamic voltage support, to ensure the grid stability during grid faults. Concerning doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind energy conversion systems (WECS) large electromotive forces and rotor currents, which may damage the rotor-side converter, or adversely affect the DFIG's controllability are induced into the rotor circuit in case of voltage dips. To handle and limit the rotor currents in case of asymmetrical voltage dips without crowbar triggering, a virtual resistance control approach based on the standard dq-control in the synchronous reference frame is discussed. The theoretical results are compared with those of more demanding virtual inductance control. The LVRT capability is verified with measurement results, recorded during a certification campaign at a 2.1 MW WECS concerning the Indian grid code. - 13.A. Uphues, K. Nötzold, R. Wegener and S. Soter, "DFIG's virtual resistance demagnetization for crowbar less LVRT" in
*2017 IEEE 12th International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems (PEDS)*, 2017, pp. 265--270.ISBN: 2164-5264

Abstract:

Due to the increased renewable power penetration level renewable power plants have to provide low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability with simultaneous dynamic voltage support, to ensure the grid stability during grid faults. Concerning doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind energy conversion systems (WECS) large transient electromotive forces (EMF) and rotor currents, which may damage the rotor-side converter (RSC), or adversely affect the controllability of the DFIG are induced into the rotor circuit in case of voltage dips. To limit the rotor currents and to accelerate the transient flux component's or transient electromotive force's damping respectively, a virtual resistance demagnetization approach based on the standard dq-control in the synchronous reference frame is discussed. The theoretical results are compared with those of more demanding virtual inductance and virtual impedance approaches. Additionally, to increase the IGBT's current conductivity, a reduction of switching losses due to a simple pulse pattern optimization is provided. The LVRT-capability is verified with measurement results, recorded during a certification campaign at a 2.1 MW WECS in India, concerning the Indian grid code. - 12.A. Uphues, K. Nötzold, R. Wegener and S. Soter, "Comparison of parameter identification approaches with linearised process models based on RLS for induction machines with P {\textgreater} 100 kW" in
*2016 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT)*, 2016, pp. 134--140.

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparison between a continuous time domain approach (CTD) and a discrete time domain approach (DTD) for parameter identification of induction machines P{\textgreater}100 kW fed with a voltage source inverter (VSI). The machine parameters are identified off-line, based on the reference voltage and the measured current at standstill and single-axis excitation by the VSI. The quality of the identified parameters is verified with the comparison of measured and estimated torque for the whole operating range, exclusively the field weakening region. - 11.A. Uphues, K. Nötzold, R. Griessel, R. Wegener and S. Soter, "Overview of LVRT-capability pre-evaluation with an inverter based test bench" in
*2015 IEEE 24th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE)*, 2015, pp. 748--753.

Abstract:

With increased renewable power penetration level the system operators of power grids require low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability of renewable power plants. The LVRT-capability has to be verified during the process of certification with precisely defined short circuit tests on a reactance based test bench. For the development of the fault ride through (FRT) capability the cost intensive reactance based test configuration is replaced by an inverter based voltage sag generator (VSG). This paper deals with an overview of the whole inverter based test configuration including the control structure of the grid emulator and the adjustment of the grid side converter's control structure to reach LVRT-capability as well as measurement results for the pre-evaluation. - 10.A. Uphues, K. Nötzold, R. Wegener and S. Soter, "Frequency adaptive PR-controller for compensation of current harmonics" in
*IECON 2014 - 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society*, 2014, pp. 2103--2108.ISBN: 1553-572X

Abstract:

The use of proportional resonant (PR) current controller in grid side wind power converters instead of the traditional proportional integral (PI) controller has gained a large popularity. Particularly its capability for compensating harmonics in the current waveforms is an essential feature. Due to the replacing of the generator side converter by a simple diode rectifier, harmonics with variable frequencies into dependence of the generator frequency appear in the current waveforms. To reach the IEEE standard for the total harmonic distortion (THD) a frequency adaptive PR-controller for compensating these harmonics is required. - 9.A. Uphues, K. Nötzold, R. Wegener, K. Fink, M. Bragard, R. Griessel and S. Soter, "Inverter based test setup for LVRT verification of a full-scale 2 MW wind power converter" in
*2013 15th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)*, 2013, pp. 1--5.

Abstract:

With increased wind power penetration, grid codes of system operators require low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability for wind turbines (WT). This paper describes a full power test bench, designed to evaluate the functionality of grid connected converter in nominal operating mode and in case of LVRT. To verify the LVRT capability an inverter based voltage sag generator (VSG) is developed which emulates grid failures. - 8.A. Uphues, K. Nötzold, R. Wegener and S. Soter, "SOGI based grid fault detection for feeding asymmetrical reactive currents to fulfill LVRT requirements" in
*2013 IEEE AFRICON*, 2013, pp. 1--5.ISBN: 2153-0033

Abstract:

Due to the increasing wind power penetration, grid codes of system operators require low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability for wind turbines (WT). Additionally the WT has to support the power system stability in LVRT cases by supporting the grid with reactive power. The amount of reactive power feed-in depends on the type of grid fault and the depth of the voltage dip. Therefore this paper shows a reliable grid voltage monitoring consisting on a second order generalized integrator (SOGI) structure. The resulting phase locked loop (PLL) is tolerant against grid faults and the amplitudes and phase angles of the individual phase voltages are detected. - 7.A. Uphues, K. Nötzold, R. Wegener, S. Soter and R. Griessel, "Support of grid voltages with asymmetrical reactive currents in case of grid errors" in
*2013 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT)*, 2013, pp. 1781--1786.

Abstract:

Due to the increasing wind power penetration, grid codes of system operators require low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability for wind turbines (WT). Additionally the WT has to support the power system stability in LVRT cases by supporting the grid with reactive power. By feeding symmetrical reactive currents in case of asymmetrical grid errors, as required in many actual grid codes, the phase voltage of the undistorted phase will increase above the upper voltage limit. This paper shows a strategy to feed asymmetrical reactive currents into the distorted grid without increasing the phase voltage in the undistorted phase. - 6.A. Uphues, K. Nötzold, R. Wegener, S. Soter and R. Griessel, "Inverter based voltage sag generator with PR-controller", 2012, pp. 1037--1042.

Abstract:

Due to the increasing wind power penetration, grid codes of system operators require low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability for wind turbines (WT). Additionally the WT has to support the power system stability in LVRT cases. To evaluate the LVRT capability of grid connected converter, a voltage sag generator (VSG) is required to emulate grid failures. This paper introduces a three phase programmable inverter based VSG, which is equipped with a cascaded control structure consisting of proportional resonant (PR) current controller and PR voltage controller. The described VSG is able to emulate all required voltage sags, propagated through a delta star connected transformer, very precisely. The control structure has been simulated and tested successfully on a 2MW full power testbench.